Perimenopause, or menopause transition, begins several years before menopause. It’s the time when the ovaries gradually begin to make less estrogen. It usually starts in a woman’s 40s, but can start in their 30s or even earlier.
Perimenopause lasts up until menopause, the point when the ovaries stop releasing eggs. In the last 1 to 2 years of perimenopause, this drop in estrogen speeds up. At this stage, many women have menopause symptoms.
How Long Does Perimenopause Last?
The average length of perimenopause is 4 years, but for some women this stage may last only a few months or continue for 10 years. Perimenopause ends when women have gone 12 months without having their period.
What Are the Signs of Perimenopause?
Women in perimenopause have at least some these symptoms:
- Hot flushes
- Breast tenderness
- Worse premenstrual syndrome
- Lower sex drive
- Irregular periods
- Vaginal dryness and discomfort during sex
- Urine leakage when coughing or sneezing
- Urinary urgency (an urgent need to urinate more frequently)
- Mood swings
- Trouble sleeping
Are My Perimenopausal Symptoms Normal or Something to Be Concerned About?
Irregular periods are common and normal during perimenopause. But other conditions can cause changes in menstrual bleeding. If any of the following situations apply to you, see a doctor to rule out other causes:
- Your periods are very heavy, or they have blood clots.
- Your periods last several days longer than usual.
- You spot between periods.
- You have spotting after sex.
- Your periods happen closer together.
Causes of abnormal bleeding include hormone problems, birth control pills, pregnancy, fibroids, blood clotting problems or, rarely, cancer.
How Is Perimenopause Diagnosed?
Often your doctor can make the diagnosis of perimenopause based on your symptoms. A blood test to check hormone levels may also help, but your hormone levels are changing during perimenopause. It may be more helpful to have several blood tests done at different times for comparison.
Can I Get Pregnant If I Am Perimenopausal?
Yes. Despite a decline in fertility during the perimenopause stage, you can still become pregnant. If you do not want to become pregnant, you should use some form of birth control until you reach menopause (you have gone 12 months without having your period).
For some women, getting pregnant can be difficult once they are in their late 30s to early 40s due to a drop in fertility. If becoming pregnant is the goal, there are treatments that can help you get pregnant.
Are There Treatments That Can Ease the Symptoms of Perimenopause?
Many women get relief from hot flushes after taking low-dose birth control pills for a short time. Other options that may control hot flashes include the birth control skin patch, vaginal ring, and progesterone injections. Certain women should not use birth control hormones, so talk to your doctor to see if they are right for you.
You may also feel better if you do things that enhance your general well-being, such as:
- Stop smoking.
- Get more sleep and try going to sleep and waking up at the same time each day.
- Drink less alcohol.
- Get to a healthy weight and stay there.
- Get enough calcium in your diet.
- Ask your doctor if you should take a multivitamin.
Talk to your doctor if you are having problems with your sex drive. They may be able to recommend a counsellor or therapist to help you and your partner work through this problem. Vaginal lubricants may also be recommended, if vaginal dryness is a problem.
Other treatments available to help with the various symptoms of perimenopause may include antidepressant medication for mood swings.
Talk to your doctor about your specific symptoms and goals of treatment. This will help them make a plan that is right for you.